崔慧然,李宏然,崔启政,任建伟,翟永杰,张乔.航空发动机及燃气轮机叶片涂层概述[J].热喷涂技术,2019,11(1):82~94.
航空发动机及燃气轮机叶片涂层概述
Summary of Blade Coatings for Aero-engine and Gas Turbine
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-7127.2019.01.011
中文关键词:  涂层  制备技术  叶片  航空发动机  燃气轮机
英文关键词:Coatings  Preparation technology  Blades  Aero-engine  Gas Turbine
基金项目:
                 
作者单位
崔慧然 无锡透平叶片有限公司
李宏然 无锡透平叶片有限公司
崔启政 无锡透平叶片有限公司
任建伟 无锡透平叶片有限公司
翟永杰 无锡透平叶片有限公司
张乔 无锡透平叶片有限公司
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中文摘要:
      主要介绍了航空发动机和燃气轮机压气机叶片和涡轮叶片涉及涂层的分类、制备技术及主要性能指标;阐 述了相关涂层的研究现状、发展趋势及存在问题,指明了后续这些涂层的重点攻关方向。
英文摘要:
      In this review, the type, process technology and main performance index of compressor and turbine blade coatings for aero-engine and gas turbine are introduced. The research status, development trends and existing problems of the coatings are described, which indicates the following key research directions of these coatings. For some advanced engine, the outlet temperature of compressor has reached more than 650°C , and the combustion chamber temperature can be close to 2000°C , what's more, the inlet temperature of high-pressure turbine blade can reach 1650-1750°C .While traditional materials can not bear this high temperature, such as Ni-based high temperature alloy. It is well known that the coating technology is an effective way to protect the blade from being oxidized and eroded in order to improve the lifetime, anti-fatigue performance and engine efficiency. Compressor blade coating for aero-engine and gas turbine can be divided into four categories according to blade parts and functions, including anti-fretting wear coating on blade root, anti-corrosion coating on profile, anti-erosion coating and flame retardant coating. CuNiIn coatings, the dry film lubricants and silver coatings can work as anti-fretting wear coatings. Because of its low hardness, good corrosion resistance and high temperature resistance, the CuNiIn coating is often usedfor anti-fretting wear on the working face of aero-engine compressor blades. Dry film lubrication coating is mainly applied to the blade root working surface of aero-engine and gas turbine compressor to reduce the friction coefficient of the blade root tenon surface,meanwhile reduce the wear of the blade root pressure working surface efficiently, and improve the anti-fretting wear performance of the blade. With the improvement of coating quality required by aero-engine and gas turbine industry, the robot spraying method which can produce dry film lubrication coating with uniform composition and consistent performance has become the focus of this coating.. Silver plated compressor blade root working face with dry film lubrication coating to reduce friction and fretting wear. Sliver coating on the compressor blade root working surface could obtain the similar function of dry film lubrication coating to reduce friction and fretting wear.CuNiIn coatings and the dry film lubricants have been widely used on compressor blade coatings for aero-engine and gas turbine of GE, Rolls-Royce, SNECMA. Chrome-free zinc-aluminum coating is one of the most famous anti-corrosion coatings on compressor blade profile, which is excellent corrosion resistance and environmental friendly. The compositions of the chrome-free zinc-aluminum coating are base-corrosion resistant coating and surface-seal coating. The principle of the chrome- free zinc-aluminum coating is sacrificicalanode for protecting the cathode. The preparation method of chrome-free zinc-aluminum coating is manual spraying. Binary anti-erosion coating has been widely used in foreign aero-engine compressor blades. In recent years, GE, MDS-PRADand other companies have developed ER7 and BlackGold, the main components are TiN and TiAlN, which are laminated structure. The coating closely combined with the substrate through a transition layer. The fracture toughness and erosion resistance have been greatly improved. In China, a large number of studies have been done about anti-erosion coatings, including TiAIN, ZrAlN, ZrN/TiN, Al/AlN, Ti/TiN, Cr/CrN, etc. But most of the anti-erosion coatings can't be applied to aero-engine blade by lack of systematic research about the mechanism, design and assessment system. Flame retardant coating has been widely used on the aero-engine compressor blades. The structure of flame retardant coating is different from substrate, and thebonding strength directly determinesthe lifetime of the coating. Therefore, it is veryimportant to choose the appropriate material and process. Thermal spraying, ion plating, electron beam physical vapor deposition, magnetron sputtering and chemical vapor deposition are the main methods to prepare flame retardant coating at home and abroad. In order to accelerate the application of flame retardant coating on the new engine, a lot of work should be done in the fields of material, structure, process and testing in the future. Turbine blade coatings for aero-engine and gas turbine can be divided into four categories according to the degree of mutual diffusion between the coating and the substrate,includingthermal barrier coating, overlay coating, aluminizedcoating and sealing coating. Double layer structure, multilayer structure and gradient structure are typicalstructures of thermal barrier coating.The traditionalprocesses of thermal barrier coatings are including HVOF, HFPD, PS, EB-PVD. And ion beam assisted electron beam physical vapor deposition, suspension plasma spraying and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) have beendeveloped in recent years. The advantages of the technologiesarelistedin the review. What's more, the practical application and further research of the thermal barrier coating are mentionedin the review. MCrAlY coating can be divided into Fe-based coating, Co-based coating and Ni-based coatingby the properties of anti-oxidation and anti-corrosion. As an important part of high temperature protective coating, the material, composition and structure of MCrAlY coating is studied by many scientists to improvethe bonding strength, high temperature oxidation corrosion resistance and strain tolerance. Meanwhile, the relationship between the chemical composition and thermal expansion coefficient should be considered as a new principle for the design of MCrAlY coating. Aluminized coating is prepared by chemical vapor depositionnormally, which can get excellent oxidation resistance and thermal corrosion resistance. Wuxi turbine blade co., ltd. has manufacturedaluminizedcoating on the inner and outer surface of gas turbine blades by CVD. The development of Aluminized coating will also be a trend for aero-engine and gas turbine turbine blade coatings in the future. The sealing coating can improve the airtightness between the bladeand fixed parts of the gas turbine for improving the engine efficiency. The sealing coating can often work at 300-1200°C temperature. The material and application of sealing coating are introduced in the review, and high-temperature sealing coating for advanced aero-engine is necessary to research. Researchers should take a lot of time to study the new CMC seal coating, which will apply to the future aero-engine.
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