李胜峰,杜开平,沈婕.选区激光熔化工艺参数对气雾化 316L不锈钢粉末成形制品性能的影响[J].热喷涂技术,2019,11(2):58~67.
选区激光熔化工艺参数对气雾化 316L不锈钢粉末成形制品性能的影响
Effect of Selective Laser Melting Process Parameters on Forming Characteristics of 316L Stainless Steel Powder Prepared by Gas Atomization
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-7127.2019.02.010
中文关键词:  选区激光熔化  激光功率  扫描速度  316L不锈钢粉末
英文关键词:Selective laser melting  Laser power  Scanning speed  316L Stainless Steel Powder
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 (51704025)
        
作者单位
李胜峰 北京矿冶科技集团有限公司
特种涂层材料与技术北京市重点实验室
北京市工业部件表面强化与修复工程技术研究中心
杜开平 北京矿冶科技集团有限公司
特种涂层材料与技术北京市重点实验室
北京市工业部件表面强化与修复工程技术研究中心
沈婕 北京矿冶科技集团有限公司
特种涂层材料与技术北京市重点实验室
北京市工业部件表面强化与修复工程技术研究中心
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中文摘要:
      本研究系统考察了激光功率和扫描速度对 316L 不锈钢粉末选区激光熔化工艺成形熔道、制品微观组织及 力学性能的影响,并分析了各类缺陷的形成原因。研究结果表明:在低激光功率和高扫描速度条件下,熔道中出 现了大量球状颗粒,这些颗粒之间的空隙恶化了下一层粉末的熔化条件,这正是成形制品中熔道分布混乱以及孔 洞、裂纹产生的根本原因,进而导致成形制品力学性能降低;在高激光功率和低扫描速度条件下,熔池快速升温 / 冷却的热应力作用增强,使得成形制品的熔道交界处也存在孔洞和裂纹等缺陷。在本研究实验条件下,激光功 率为 350 W,扫描速度为 1750 mm/s 时,SLM 成形制品的力学性能最为优异,其中抗拉强度为 731 MPa、屈服强 度为 638 MPa、断后伸长率为 40.0%,致密度为 96.27%。
英文摘要:
      Recently, an additive manufacturing method, a supplement to the traditional manufacturing industry, has gained a lot of attentions due to the advantages of rapid preparation of complex parts. With the improvement of additive manufacturing technology, the range of additive manufacturing raw materials has been expanded from the organic materials with low melting points to the metal materials with the high melting points, which extends its application range to the fields of aerospace and automobile manufacturing. The selective laser melting (SLM) is a mainstream technology of additive manufacturing with the metal materials. However, the supply of high quality metal powder has become an obstacle for the SLM development. Currently, the amount of stainless steel powder, such as 316L, used in molds accounts for about 20% of the global 3D printing metal materials. In this study, the 316L stainless steel powder with the low oxygen content, fine particle size and good circularity was prepared by the vacuum gas atomization. The chemical composition and physical properties, including the angle of repose, the bulk density and the tap density, of the 316L stainless steel powder all meet the requirements of SLM process. In addition, the effects of selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters, including the laser power and scanning speed, on the melt channel, microstructure and mechanical properties of SLM forming products were investigated in detail. The formation reasons of various defects were also analyzed. The results could be summarized as follows. Under the conditions of the low laser power or the high scanning speed, due to the insufficient laser energy, the powder in the molten pool is not completely melted, resulting in the increasing viscosity of the molten pool and the poor wettability between the molten pool and substrate. Therefore, a large number of spherical particles appear in the melt channel, and in the severe cases, the melt channel could be even broken. In addition, there is a large amount of voids between the spherical particles, which further deteriorates the melting condition of the next layer of powder. It is the root cause of disordered distribution of the melt channels and the generation of holes and cracks in the longitudinal and horizontal sections of SLM forming product. During the stretching process, the above defects are the source of cracks causing the fracture of SLM forming product, which further leads to a decrease in the mechanical properties of SLM forming product, such as the tensile strength, yield strength, elongation at break and relatively density. Under the conditions of the high laser power and low scanning speed, the Marangoni flow inside the molten pool enhanced and exhibits instability. In addition, the rapid heating or cooling processes of molten pool enhances the thermal stress in the SLM forming product. The above phenomenon leads to the fact that the defects, including holes and cracks, could also be found in the SLM forming product. And these defects are generally present at the junction of adjacent melt channel in the same or different powder layers. Furthermore, under the experimental conditions of this work, when the laser power is 350 W and the scanning speed is 1750 mm/s, the mechanical properties of SLM forming products are best, which includes a tensile strength of 731 MPa, a yield strength of 638 MPa, an elongation of 40.0% and a relatively density of 96.27%.
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